There is a natural and artificial way of inseminating cows
An important process is the preparation of females for conception. In the warm season, cows are free-range and are able to provide themselves with vitamins. After the last lactation, the cow needs rest. Until the moment of insemination, animals are fed and made sure that they are not fat. In winter, cattle are kept in dry, warm rooms, with adequate ventilation and vitamin complexes are introduced into the diet.
After calving, the cows are examined for postpartum injuries. Immediately before insemination, all rooms are disinfected. Females and bulls are washed and their genitals are treated with a solution of manganese or furatsilina.
In the implementation of artificial techniques, the preparation goes according to a different scheme. After cleaning the room, the animal is fixed, gloves are put on. The anus is abundantly lubricated with petroleum jelly and the feces from the rectum are manually removed. Then, the cervix is determined to touch and massaged through the wall of the rectum. The tail, hind limbs, anus and vaginal lips are washed with warm water, then with furacilin solution.
The male inseminator is contained in a common herd of females, numbering 30-40 heads. More often, breeders try to keep 2-3 bulls in order to be able to change them once every 2-3 days during insemination. If the male is alone, he is given rest once every 7 days. The bull is able to inseminate all the females that are in the herd and are in the hunt for the day.
The main disadvantage of this method is its low efficiency. A bull climbs a cow only once. If the male is not in the best physical shape, he may not have enough strength to fertilize several females. If most of the walking heifers remain unfertilized, this will significantly reduce livestock productivity.
During sexual contact, infection often occurs. The qualitative characteristics of breeding bulls are difficult to maintain in the intensive mode of fertilization of a large number of females. As a result, even in the best males, sperm activity decreases, which leads to low fertility, as well as the appearance of genetic pathologies.
This method involves the separate keeping of the bull from the females. A special machine is needed on which the bull places his forelimbs. A cow is brought when her blood has gone from the labia.
Each male individual is assigned 35-40 females. Mating is carried out according to plan. With the same inseminator, the female is mated 2 times, observing a time period of 10-12 hours. Before starting the process, the animals wash their hind limbs and genitals.
The technique has a number of advantages compared to free mating. During the year, the bull is able to cover 100-150 females. The farmer has the opportunity to provide the optimal number of sexual acts. Bulls increase productivity if the following rules are followed:
- adult male should make no more than 2-3 cages,
- at the age of 1.5 years, knitting is carried out once a week, in 2.5 years - 2-3 times a week,
- the break for the male who made 2-3 cages is 24 hours,
- the mating room should be clean, dry,
- during sexual intercourse, the animals are indoors alone.
For the procedure you will need 3 rooms. You can use the services of specialized stations, but the effectiveness of artificial insemination is much higher at home, because this is how animals feel more comfortable.
You will need a laboratory equipped with a refrigerator and special lockers. Tools and sperm will be stored here.
The next room is the disinfection department. A special cabinet is installed in it for frying reusable tools, a wash basin and alcohol liquid for hanging hands are hung.
The last room, the treatment room, is equipped with a durable arena, handrails and harnesses for fixing animals.
With the help of artificial insemination, the farmer can make an accurate schedule of insemination and calving. The risk of contracting sexually transmitted and infectious diseases is reduced, and there is no risk of trauma to young heifers by a bull seeder. Through the use of the seed of highly productive males, the farmer gets the opportunity to significantly improve the quality of the offspring. With one serving of sperm, 500 cows and more can be seeded.
Artificial insemination of cows
Optimum insemination and age
Heifers enter puberty at the age of 8-10 months, and much depends on the breed, conditions, climatic features of the area, etc. Nevertheless, the best time for insemination of heifers is considered to be the age when the heifer is fully ready for fertilization - this is mainly the age of 20-24 months. By this time, the weight of the heifer is 2/3 of the weight of an adult animal. The cow is inseminated 2 times: when the animal was observed hunting the next day. For insemination of cows artificially in farms contain bulls-producers.
Natural insemination of cows is called a cage or mating: with this method of insemination, the bull is in a herd of several cows, but in the process of hunting and mating, the bull wears out quickly. In another case, the heifer is tied near a special machine, after which the bull - producer inseminates the heifer. To obtain the maximum result, re-breeding is carried out, which should be done no later than 12 hours after the first insemination.
Methods of artificial insemination of cows are of the following types:
- Rectocervical method of insemination of cows.
These methods require a number of activities, in addition, the insemination of cows must have the necessary education and extensive experience. Artificial insemination of cows is carried out in specially equipped points, which are equipped with an arena, laboratory and washing. The inseminator during the work should be familiarized with the job description for insemination of cows.
The laboratory must have the necessary set of equipment for the insemination process, which often consists of a microscope, chemicals and utensils for the preparation of disinfectant solutions, as well as refrigeration equipment containing bull seed. Artificial insemination of heifers and cows on the territory of the Russian Federation must comply with the instructions for artificial insemination of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation.
The donors are proven, highly productive, healthy cows and bulls. Female donors cause ovulation with the help of special drugs. Then they are inseminated several times and after 14-17 days the fertilized eggs are washed out.
Planting is carried out by introducing into the uterine cavity, through the cervical canal of the finished embryo. The technique is used for cows of large breeds. A large, healthy female is able to tolerate a calf of any mass. The technique is used in breeding farms with qualified livestock specialists.
Ovum fertilization occurs within 2-6 hours. From the moment of sexual intercourse, the females are transferred to a separate room, given a rest of 4 hours. For 3 months, monitor its condition and keep it separate from the herd.
If the insemination attempt was unsuccessful, the female enters the hunt after 20-30 days. In such cases, the manipulations are repeated. If there is no result for the 3rd time, a detailed examination of the animal for pathologies of the reproductive system is carried out.
In 20% of cases, embryos die in the first month after insemination. The hunt comes in 40-45 days. During this period, it is imperative to carry out fertilization again, otherwise the cow will become barren.
Diagnosis of pregnancy symptoms is possible after 3 weeks. The cow begins to behave cautiously, her gait changes, she eschews other individuals, eats more. Upon rectal examination, an increase in the uterus is identified. The most reliable way to determine pregnancy, to give blood for analysis. Elevated progesterone levels will indicate pregnancy.
Diagnosis of pregnancy in heifers and cows
After fertilization and until the calf’s birth, the calf has a period of pregnancy, or, as the people say, the cow becomes “pregnant”. On average, the gestation period is about 9 months. In farms, cattle pregnancy can be determined by rectal or vaginal methods: modern methods can very accurately determine a heifer or not.
One of the most important stages of breeding work in the herd is the preparation of a calendar plan for insemination and calving of cows: in this case, you can not only have time to prepare a room for the birth process, but also draw up a plan for the consumption of valuable feed for already calving animals. In addition, the identification of pregnancy helps determine the molehills and the reasons why the cow does not come to the hunt, after which the animals undergo the necessary treatment.
Timely detection of hunting in animals allows you to most accurately find out when to inseminate a cow, and also to know when a calf will appear - in total, this allows you to get the greatest milk yield, as well as the birth of healthy calves.