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Black color is widely used in drawing, but you may not have the right paint on hand or you may need black paint with a light shade of a different color. You can prepare black paint from equal parts of red, yellow and blue paints by mixing them in a palette. You can also mix complementary colors, such as blue and orange, red and green, or yellow and purple. In addition, a juicy black color can be obtained from a combination of blue and brown colors.
For the artist, this color indicates the darkest, and for scientists - the lack of color. Black is an achromatic shade that absorbs all light. By the absorption of the light flux, it is opposite to white, reflecting completely the light and radiation incident on it. In the natural environment, there is a material close in tone to it - this is Vantablack dark carbon, which absorbs 99.96% of the incident light and other radiation.
Back in the Renaissance, painting masters tried to get black paint and concluded that it was impossible to make it from other paints. Therefore, they used burnt bones, from the soot of which they dyed a matte black tone.
Today, black ink is made industrially from natural carbon pigments such as graphite and soot.
In practice, 2 main color models are used:
- RGB - additive, the basis of which is the superposition of rays reflected from the surfaces of objects. It is used in computer monitors, contains the main colors: R-red, G-green, B-blue. The rest of the colors and shades are obtained by blending.
- CMYK - subtractive model, which is based on the physical mixing of pigments, and white is the absence of color, and pure black is obtained by mixing cyan (C-blue), magenta (M-purple) and yellow (Yellow) tones, K (key color) - key. This system is used in the printing and printing industries.
What colors to mix?
To get a black color close to perfect, you can go by mixing paints of the following colors:
- Red and green - the resulting tone will be close to what you want (in fact, it turns out to be very dark, and if you look closely, it is not quite ideal).
- Blue, yellow and red - if you take these 3 primary colors, then mixing them will also allow you to get a fairly saturated color.
- D additional colors (brown, purple, blue) - you need to mix them in small quantities, then you get an approximate color.
You can use for mixing any paint intended for drawing or household purposes: acrylic, gouache, watercolor and oil. If there is no ready-made dye in a classic tone, then there are a lot of options for how to make black paint from others.
To obtain a pure color, you will have to work hard and select the necessary proportions, gradually adding different colors.
On the video: which colors to mix to get black.
Shades of black
There are many shades that differ slightly from classic black, which will allow the artist to add originality to his work. Historically, the following shades:
- Aspide - essentially dark gray, the name comes from the slate-aspide, which was used earlier in the manufacture of the blackboard.
- Karamazy - synonyms for "swarthy", "blackish".
- Anthracite is a highly saturated color with some brilliance.
- Bullish blood is a black and red color.
- Bardadym - the name of the king of black suit in the game with cards.
Modern shades of black differ from those used previously:
- Soft black - to obtain it you need to mix such paints: turquoise, pink and yellow, sometimes a little white is added.
- Medium - pink, ultramarine and light yellow paints are mixed for him.
- A saturated color scheme can be made not only of the three primary colors (chromatic), but also with the help of red, yellow and blue colors.
- Blue-black - obtained by a mixture of brown and dark blue.
Many shades of dark and light gray can be made by experimenting with the addition of white paint or adding a little water. Empirically, it will be visible what colors and shades are obtained.
Those who have not forgotten the laws of physics, obviously remember that the color of carbon black is obtained with the complete absorption of light rays falling on the surface. But to get it on canvas or paper, you need to mix together as many colorful paints as possible. It turns out: the hero of our article by a real artist is the most saturated and complex color.
Let's take a closer look at the basic techniques for using this feature of black:
- Volume transfer. Very often, to create a pronounced relief of a flat image, many masters use black tones to achieve the goal. The sharp transitions from light to shadow create a sense of tangible volume in the paintings.
- Emphasis. To solve compositional and creative tasks, experienced artists use black tones. They create the effect of contrast and emphasis, attracting the attention of the viewer to the right places in their works. In the same Kuindzhi, we do not see black because of the bright moon, which against its background simply dazzles, like a spotlight in the night.
- Outlines. Very often they use dark tones to convey silhouettes and contours. In poster, animation, decorative and graphic art - this is one of the most popular techniques.
- Background design. For portrait painters, black is a lifesaver that removes all questions to distracting details from the main portrait. Most of the famous portraits are made against such a background.
So, we examined the reasons for the popularity of our today's hero. Now take a look at the paint palette of the working wizard. Again there are plenty of dark tones. The logical question is, where to get so much black paint? However, if you look in a box with tubes or trays of watercolor, you will be surprised. It turns out that pure black is almost untouched. How can this be?
The answer has already been mentioned in our article. A handsome night man is the most complex color and is obtained by mixing different colors, moreover, black can be omitted altogether. By the way, for artists - this is usually a good form. That is why most of them have tubes with this paint more than all the others.
Subtractive mixing method
This method of adding colors involves creating fewer tones than is possible with RGB. In theory, such a model involves obtaining a black color if you mix a number of other colors. But with the actual mixing of the pigments, not a black tone comes out, but a dark brown one with a brown tint, which will be very noticeable when diluted.
Therefore, in the printing house, where the subtractive method is used, a key tone is added to this mixture - real black in finished form. Not a single ink obtained by mixing colors replaces the true black pigment, which has long been known to printers.
The combination of paints to obtain coal
If you read the manuals for beginner artists, everywhere you can find an indication: no combination of colors will give 100% black. But there are tables with information which paints need to be mixed in order to create the darkest shade close to black.
The easiest way is to mix red, blue and yellow inks. Gouache, oil are best suited, and the watercolor will be too transparent, will not give the necessary depth. Any basic set of colors is suitable, although artists often take cyan, magenta, yellow cadmium, royal blue and alizarin red.
- put on a white palette a drop of each paint (take an equal amount of all colors) at a small distance from each other,
- gently mix the colors with a brush, spatula,
- materials must be mixed for at least 15 seconds so that there are no streaks using circular motions.
If you need to lighten a little black, a drop of white paint is introduced into it. To give the tone of the natural sky add a drop of blue or purple pigment. To paint the night forest, they add a little green to black, and a little orange to draw the rays of the sun on a dark surface. Of course, the expressiveness of such blackness will be less, for a rich tone it is better to buy a ready-made color in the store.
There are other methods for obtaining the desired color:
- red + green
- purple + brown,
- blue + orange,
- purple + yellow
- blue + brown.
All received tones will be close to black, but not ideal; upon closer examination, it is easy to identify a "fake". In the first embodiment, it is better to take red alizarin and emerald. But the finished color can still have the shade of one of them or become olive, purple, brown.
According to artists, the best color is obtained by mixing blue and brown paint, regardless of its brand and specific appearance. Moreover, the more brown, the “warmer” the blackness will be. On the contrary, blue strongly cools the finished color scheme. Dilution of this color with water gives an excellent gray tone.